History of Lancaster (Forton) services
A dramatic drawing from a publicity leaflet.
When Lancaster services was first commissioned, under its local name of Forton, there was no clue that its design was going to go on to become so iconic. In fact, the Ministry weren't actually that keen on it.
The documents were sent out in 1962 and described it as a 17.7 acre site, requiring at least a £250,000 investment, including an eastern corner reserved for a picnic area, and an emphasis that the views to the west must be considered in the design, and facilities must be provided on both sides. Five replies were received, and they were analysed by their rent offer, fuel offer, catering offer, traffic flow, landscaping and company stability.
Telefusion were made up of 20 companies who all rented out televisions. They proposed building one restaurant an one café on a bridge, plus a transport café each side. Seating would have been provided for 750 people. The design included a footbridge over the southbound access road to reach the picnic area.
The café and restaurant overlooked the motorway. The rent offered in return was low, the building layout was poor and the catering plans were too vague to be used.
The established catering firm who had been encouraged to try for a service area proposed one grill-restaurant and two snack bars on the bridge, with a transport café at each end of the building. Below the restaurants were two walkways (one for staff and one for the public), with shops. Outside the entrance to the restaurant (in the middle of the bridge) was a rounded foyer, while the snack bars were at the top of each flight of stairs. The building was described as "heavy and ugly", with "bad shapes" and it didn't account for any of the views offered.
Their rent proposal was great in the short term, the catering was good, but the car parks were too small and needed a significant redesign.
Lyons would have used the name Normand Ltd, with catering provided by The Robley Group of Liverpool.
Banquets Catering Ltd
Banquets were planning one top-floor restaurant, one ground-floor café and a transport café on each side, seating 740 in total. The rent offered was low, the layout was poor and the catering proposal exposed a lack of knowledge. The car park had been screened by walls of local stone.
Granada would eventually come to own the services as their monopoly of the region grew. They clearly wanted a head-start with this.
Granada wanted a restaurant and café on the northbound side, with a takeaway hut on the southbound side, as well as a transport café on both. Overall it would have seated 950 people, mostly on the northbound side where they felt most of the trade would be. Next to those restaurants was a grass area, reserved for a further expansion. The large buildings took on a rotunda shape, with concrete on the upper sections and glass on the lower sections, all elevated above the surroundings, with toilets and a shop on the ground floor. The covered footbridge met the building at mezzanine level.
The café would have been further divided into sections offering full meals and refreshments, and the restaurant would have had a private dining room.
The rent they were offering in return was excellent. This, coupled with the vast and unnecessary plan, means it likely would have ran at a loss. Granada were repeating a trick they had tried at Leicester Forest East, where they hoped they would own a site so large no other sites would be needed. Once again, it didn't work. In addition to being caught out, had it been built as per their plan the sewage system would have needed an extensive and expensive upgrade.
During their investigations, Granada enquired as to whether they could tunnel under the road. They were told they could - but that it wasn't clear why they would want to!
If you thought Granada had been trying to circumvent the rules, Fortes had tried something even cleverer.
Motorway Services Ltd, the company part-owned by Fortes who had built most of the country's motorway services so far, were told regulations preventing a monopoly meant they could not bid for this site. So Fortes decided they would put their name on the bid, and point out it was the first bid they had submitted!
The plan had a restaurant and café on the bridge, with an exposed terrace at each side, above a transport café and entrance hall, all together offering seating for 600 people. Predictably, the catering was great. The landscaping received a mix reaction, while it is the only proposal ever to be additionally submitted to the county's engineers, who confirmed the bridge-restaurant almost certainly would not stand as they had drawn it. There would have been a mobile catering unit in the picnic area.
Fortes didn't win the contract because of the engineering concerns, because their existing services weren't operating perfectly, but mostly because they had tried to take advantage of the Ministry overlooking how specific they needed to be in their regulation.
Full details: The Pennine Tower
Top Rank's plan came "consistently highly" rated by all the experts it was passed between. It showed a restaurant and a self-serve café on the west side, the restaurant at the top of a 96ft (29m) tower. At the top of the tower was a sun terrace ("a roof with glass walls"), which they had requested but hadn't included any suggestions for how it could be used, adding that maybe it could form an observation platform, serve teas, or be reserved for an additional storey to the restaurant.
Including a transport café on each site, seating was provided for 700 people, with 101 toilets and 403 parking spaces. A kiosk and toilets were provided in the picnic area.
Granada's to the Ministry, 1963.
Architects T P Bennett & Sons had been commissioned to design the services, along with the similar Hilton Park. The agreed initial rent was the highest of any 1960s service station. However, it was the only service area to use a constant revenue curve, and the rent did not increase as custom did, meaning in the long-term it could have become one of the cheapest. At £885,000, it was the most expensive service station Rank built, and was considerably more than what had been requested.
The county surveyor and chairman of the county highways said it was by the far the best option put forward. However, it didn't offer anything for southbound traffic. It was therefore summarised as "not ideal but imaginative". On this weak recommendation, they won the contract, but on a condition imposed by the Landscape Advisory Committee that the height of the tower was reduced to something less striking.
Lancaster was opened in 1965 by Rank under the name 'Forton'. The petrol station opened early in January as the motorway was also finished early, and the northbound amenities in November. Much of the southbound building wasn't built until the late 1980s. Forton had paid a significant sum to accelerate the speed of construction of the services to be ready for the motorway, despite being under no obligation to.
As with all their services, Rank issued celebratory promotional leaflets.
Shortly after opening, the services struggled to recruit staff. In 1966 the southbound restaurant was used to trial automated catering. One of these was an Autosnacks machine, where staff load hot meals into the back and customers paid to release them. The initially reluctant Ministry of Transport were won round by the idea, but Rank weren't - they removed them due to low demand.
When Granada eventually grasped hold of the services, they renamed it to 'Lancaster'. Unusually, Granada later changed this to 'Lancaster (Forton)' - it's not clear whether dropping the name Forton resulted in a drop of trade or just upset a few of the services's fans. This name stuck around for about a decade, but Moto are now slowly dropping the 'Forton' part leaving just 'Lancaster'. The Highways Agency still refer to it as 'Lancaster (Forton)' when there is an incident at the services.
Extensions to the lower area of the northbound building added a shop and early fast food unit, later becoming La Brioche Doree. In 2000 an additional retail extension created space for retail stores, one of the first shopping centres they built. From 2007 this consisted of WHSmith, M&S Simply Food and Costa, with additional space created by the toilets moving upstairs. Burger King is now the main upstairs offer.
Downstairs, the southbound side offered three shops and a Little Chef. Little Chef became Caffe Ritazza and then Costa. Opposite it was a fast food unit which became a tourist information centre, which closed before becoming Greggs. The original shop now WHSmith. More interesting is the third unit which had inside it an additional third stairwell - now where the multi-faith room is. This is probably one of the original entrances, positioned to provide easy access to the bridge and tower. Upstairs, the main facility continues to be Burger King in a hexagon unit - once an experimental restaurant.
The southbound toilets continue to be at basement level. However, as the majority of the southbound building is a ground-level extension, the basement now only occupies a tiny portion of the building.
During early 2017, the northbound side underwent a minor refurbishment and on 7 March an Arlo's outlet opened replacing the former EDC outlet. The Costa unit was also refurbished and reopened during this time. A Greggs outlet is still due to join the northbound site.